Contact between atmospheric gases (oxygen, carbon dioxide) and food products like cheese lead to relevant biochemical and physical changes (for example, evolution of texture and colour). Among possible origin of gases in cheese, it could be gases intentionally produced by microorganisms, or voluntarily introduced during cheese preparation or on the contrary unwanted contamination from atmospheric gases, spoilage microflora, etc. In spite of their interest in cheese ripening, the effects of gases during cheese making and storage has been so far under investigated. This review discusses the possible origin and fate of gas in cheese, highlighting the consequences of gas transfer on cheese biochemical and physical properties and quality. We attempt to demonstrate that gas transfer relevantly affects the ripening and shelf life of many cheese varieties. A better understanding of gas transfer properties (diffusivity, solubility) in cheese products during ripening may allow to better control the industrial quality of the final product.