Science and technology (S&T) are major challenges for economic development and social progress. Inscribed in the SDGs of 2015 for the 2030 Agenda, their legitimacy is not recent in the issue of developing countries or countries in transition. However, if their merits were linked to the appropriation and dissemination of technology stricto sensu, the current view of them is broader and linked to the construction of competencies and capacities. This article proposes to revisit the state of the art of science and technology as interrelated with economic development, before exposing the important but thwarted link in current theories of economic development.
This article examines the impact of the digitalization of higher education on social inequalities during the health crisis (COVID-19). After a reminder on the expansion of distance education as well as the evaluation of the effectiveness of this new learning paradigm, we go into more depth on the link between distance education and social inequality. Based on an exploratory qualitative study of thirty Tunisian university teachers, the results show that resistance to change and reluctance, the lack of a suitable place to work and the slowness of Internet connection constitute the main obstacles to the adoption of this new way of learning. In addition, our study shows that 60% of teachers consider that distance education is a cruel accelerator of social inequalities for both teachers and students.
This paper analyzes the impact of the adoption of new rice technologies on the technical efficiency of farmers in Senegal. By disaggregating the different possibilities or treatment into three levels using multiple treatment, the results show that, on the one hand, the first treatment level T1 (fertilizer) has no impact on the technical efficiency of the rice farmers and, on the other hand, the second treatment level T2 (fertilizer and improved seed) and the third treatment level T3 (fertilizer, improved seed and motorized equipment) impact on the technical efficiency of rice farmers by 9.7% and 12.1%, respectively.
The concept of “recapturing innovations” explains why incumbents allow challengers to use radical
innovations to potentially disrupt the market. Challengers are small and nimble operators who seek high powered incentives to show that their innovations are viable, and the realizations of these objectives come from selling to an incumbent. Incumbents can then recapture their lost markets and use their efficient operating systems and regulatory knowledge to scale up the recaptured innovations, thus sustaining their competitive advantage. This concept is illustrated through a case study on a neobank, which is an innovation in the financial landscape, usually offering a limited range of products through mobile telephones. This case study shows that the challengers used a new organizational form, new technology and distribution channels in order to satisfy a large niche of unserved or underserved clients. This case is similar to the payment banks in India which have not fared well, perhaps because of too much regulatory interference. Therefore, regulatory agencies in developing countries should have appropriate regulations in order to reduce the institutional barriers hindering the success of social enterprises. However, they should not block initiatives in their product pricing, promoting and distributing policies.
Volume 21- 1Issue 1