Risk is a very common notion : we use it in our everyday life and frequently assess it without thinking. For instance, when driving a car, one constantly evaluates risk and uses this - somewhat obvious - estimation to decide upon actions to be taken. Most of the time, humans are not even fully aware of that risk assessment process, and rarely wonder about it ; this is what will be explored in this article. What is risk? Where does this notion come from ? What are current conceptions about the subjective risk assessment when behind the steering wheel ? First, we will focus on the very general notion of risk and its history. Then, some time will be spent on the notion of subjective risk assessment (i.e., risk perception). Finally, we will delve into the scientific approach of driver’s subjective risk assessment, with a review of the main theories and models about assumed driver’s cognitive processes when evaluating risks.
Individual cognition and collective cognition must be thought together, in the articulation of the individual logical level and the collective logical level.
The basics of quantum computing are explained based on quantum mechanics superposition and entanglement effects. The technological characteristics of the quantum computers currently available are described, as well as the programming environment qiskit. The foreseeable fields of application of quantum computing are then reviewed.