Natural cosmetics offer an opportunity for developing countries to undergo an economic transformation, because of the high market trends for these products. However, the over-exploitation of endangered plant species presents a potential danger to the ecology, and in the long term will have a negative long-term impact for the ecology and economy for these countries. The valorization of cultivable plants is therefore a solution of choice. Soy is known for its nutraceutical qualities, and this food is widely used in Madagascar to fight against malnutrition. Soy cheese is a popular source of protein that is beginning to be well accepted by the Madagascan population as part of an improvement in nutritional quality. Its popularization is however limited by its need for a cold chain for its market distribution and due to its short shelf life. Aromatic herbs have antimicrobial properties and some are also endowed with antioxidant properties. These are two useful criteria for the preservation of food products. The addition of aromatic herbs in the composition of soy cheese and a light heat treatment has resulted in a longer shelf life and improved its taste. Tofu whey contains more nutrients, not only for food, but also for the skin. Cosmetic care products have been manufactured using tofu whey as the main active ingredient. This total processing of soy avoids wasting the by-products and brings a value-added activity to its processing.
Natural skin-care and wellness products are of increasing interest to consumers. For example, between 2015 and 2019, the global growth recorded for this market was up 10 to 11% [FER 21]. This situation offers a favourable opportunity for developing countries. However, in order to be able to offer products on the international market, these countries must comply with the regulations and standards imposed by international trade. Among these regulations, European legislation has banned animal model testing for cosmetics. [JOU 09]. Since a hen’s egg embryo is not considered an animal in most countries before 17 days of incubation, the use of the chorioallontoic membrane HET CAM test is a proposed alternative method. Furthermore, before 14 days, most agree that the embryo does not yet experience pain [RIB 16]. In a Madagascan context, where material and financial means are limited, the HET CAM method is an inexpensive and easy-to-perform procedure for testing cosmetics. After an evaluation of the possible appropriate techniques, natural brooding was chosen as the most suitable system for Madagascar. Some locally produced cosmetic creams were tested. Although HET CAM is widely recognized in many countries as a valid method for testing irritant products, tests on rabbits’ ears were performed for comparison purposes [BUD 21]. The good adaptability and flexibility of this technique has been demonstrated. In the Madagascan socio-economic context, this is an easy and beneficial technology transfer.
This article analyzes the date industry of Tunisia by highlighting the structuring of this agricultural value chain in terms of its various strategic, economic and social issues. The objective of this article is to elucidate the different impacts of these challenges on the organizations within this sector. The methodology adopted is qualitative and based on semi-directive interviews with experts in the sector. Government data has also been analyzed as secondary sources. The results showed a two-speed agricultural value chain, in this case a lack of structuring between the links in the chain despite the existence of international leadership regarding value exports, technical challenges to be met in order to be part of a more impactful global value chain, and strategic local issues around a more equitable and inclusive value chain. The challenges and prospects highlighted involve both public authorities and the various local and international stakeholders involved in this sector.
In the digital era, very small businesses have to adapt to changes and make a transition to ICT, to maintain and boost their competitiveness. In this perspective and to enhance and promote crafts in Algeria, the Directorate General of Crafts and Trades has opted for a twinning with the European Union in order to support the installation of two clusters of cultural and creative industries: the copperware cluster developed in Constantine and the jewelry cluster in Batna. Indeed, the theory of clusters attributes the insertion of technologies and innovation to externalities of agglomeration and local interactions. The objective of this work is therefore to try to understand the attitudes of artisan members of cultural and creative clusters in Algeria, regarding the integration of ICT. To achieve this article, we managed a qualitative study to explore our research phenomenon. This will allow us to highlight the constructs that shape the technological and innovative behaviors of artisans within clusters.
Most of the studies devoted to commercial innovation in emerging countries consider it as necessarily and exclusively originating in Northern developed countries. This innovation, produced in the Northern developed countries, is simply adopted by the emerging ones, which then follow a totally dependent logic. The objective of this contribution is to show that this North-dominated innovation logic is far from corresponding to today’s reality. Indeed, we believe that the Southern developing or emerging countries have a much more proactive approach to innovation. The latter, when it comes from the North, is not adopted as is but is often modified in depth to be better adapted to the specificities of the local markets. Moreover, the Southern countries following a reverse innovation pattern are increasingly initiating innovations that go as far as going up the traditional diffusion route (as mentioned in academic work) to impose themselves on the Northern countries.
Senegal has started a process of structural transformation of its economy building on sectors that offer advantages in terms of agricultural productivity. In this context, cashew nut agricultural projects have been developed to encourage producers to respect good farming practices. To identify the impact of these good practices, a survey was conducted in 2018 among 228 cashew producers in the department of Kolda. To obtain relevant results, the instrumental variable method was chosen to take into account the endogeneity problem of the good practice adoption and to minimize the bias induced by both observable and unobservable characteristics. The results show a positive and significant impact of the adoption of these good agricultural practices on the yields of adopting farmers with or without interaction. The results indicate that adherence to the GAPs has a significant impact regardless of the gender of the farmers, although the impact is higher for women. Our results show that a change in behavior (adoption of good agricultural practices) from cashew producers can be a good instrument for increasing cashew productivity in Senegal. Thus, for a sustainable cashew nut sector, adoption strategies can be developed by mobilizing all actors (community radio stations, village chiefs, development actors, supervisory and research structures...).
The Cameroonian cotton basin front in the Sudano-Sahelian area is experiencing a soybean production upsurgence driven by growing demand from the national agri-food sector and the cross-border market with Nigeria. This upsurgence is bringing about profound changes in local agro-systems. Going from a simple crop that was not referenced in regional agricultural statistics, since 2010, the soybean has become the second most important legume crop after groundnuts, cowpeas and voandzou. The rapid increase in cultivated areas from 6,705 ha in 2008 to 15,020 ha in 2018 is indicative of the enthusiasm shown by farmers for this speculation, which, despite a lack of supervision from the government, is now forming a value chain. This upsurgence is also on another level the bringer of environmental issues in a space exposed to the accelerated degradation of its natural environment. Thus, the objective of this research paper is to analyze the environmental issues generated by soybean production. The results show that soybean production causes vegetation cover loss and soil degradation. The first issue deals with the extension of cultivated areas through land clearing. The second is inherent in the massive use of phytosanitary products, especially glyphosate, whose use to control weeds contributes to accelerating soil acidification.