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Human skeletal muscle is a living tissue with complex multiscale architecture. The characterization and modelling of skeletal muscle provide useful data for a better understanding of muscle behaviors in physiological and pathological conditions as well as novel biomarkers for clinical decision support. This review paper aims at, firstly, summarizing all cutting-edge techniques used for in vivo and in vitro characterization of skeletal muscle properties. Secondly, skeletal muscle modeling techniques were also addressed and discussed. This review paper provides an overview of current experimental techniques and numerical methods to study skeletal muscle biomechanics.